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 Labarion (Alounis)

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Olivier Simon

Olivier Simon

Messages : 4820
Date d'inscription : 20/02/2009
Localisation : Lorraine

Labarion (Alounis) Empty
MessageSujet: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 9:41

J'ai découvert sur un groupe Yahoo une conlang très proche du gaulois tel qu'il a pu exister, le "Labarion". Il fut inventé par un certain Alounis. D'après un membre du groupe, rien n'empêche que que je reproduise les fichiers grammaticaux (en anglais) ici.

J'ai vu qu'un dico est sur Scribd : http://fr.scribd.com/doc/63820956/Labarion-Dictionary

Voici les déclinaisons des substantifs :


LABARION LANGUAGE


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF DECLENSION STEMS:


VOCALIC STEMS:
1) themes in –o & –io (masculine & neuter) (mo) (no)
2) themes in –â –iâ & –î (feminine) (fa)
3) themes in –i (masc., fem. & neut.) (mi) (fi) (ni)
4) themes in –u (masc., fem. & neut.) (mu) (fu) (nu)

CONSONANTAL STEMS:
1) themes in dental ( -d or -t ) (masc., fem. & neut.) (md)(mt) (fd)(ft) (nd)(nt)
2) themes in guttural ( -g or -c ) (masc., fem. & neut.) (mg)(mc) (fg)(fc) (ng)(nc)
3) themes in nasal (-n) (masc. & fem.) (mn) (fn)
4) neuters in nasal –special class- (neut.) (nn)
5) themes in –r (masc. & fem.) (mr) (fr)
6) neuters in –s (neut.) (ns)
7) some irregular & indeclinable nouns

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VOCALIC STEMS

1)
MASCULINE –O STEMS (mo):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative wiros *-os man
vocative wire *-e ey man!
accusative wiron *-om (to) man (Dir. Obj.)
genitive wiri *-osio > *-oio >*-î man’s
dative wirû *-ôi for man (Ind. Obj.)
ablative wirû *-ôd from man
instrumental wirû *-ô with man
locative wirê *-ei in man

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. wirô *-ô(u) two men
genitive wirôs *-ôs (-osiô-?)
dative wirobon *-bh(ô)m
ablat.-instr. wirobin *-bhi-m
locative wirou *-ou

Plural
nominative wirij *-oi men
vocative wirûs *-ôns
accusative wirûs *-ôns
genitive wiron *-om / <-ôm
dative wirobo *-bh-(y)os
ablative wirobi *-bhi-s
instrumental wirobi (or wirûs) *-ôis
locative wirobi *-oisu


NEUTER –O STEMS (no):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative cradion (or cridion) *-om heart
vocative cradion “ *-om
accusative cradion “ *-om
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine ones)

Dual: the same as Singular.

Plural:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative cradiâ (or cridiâ) *-â hearts
vocative cradiâ “ *-â
accusative cradiâ “ *-â
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine ones)


* * * *

2)
FEMININE –Â STEMS (fa):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative genetâ *-â girl
vocative geneta *-a ey girl!
accusative genetin *-âm (to) girl (Dir. Obj.)
genitive genetiâs *-âs of girl
dative genetî *-âi for girl (Ind. Obj.)
ablative genetî *-âd from girl
instrumental genetî (or genetiâ) *-â (-yâi, < –î them.) with girl
locative genetî *-âi in girl

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. genetî (or genetij) *-ai / -oi two girls
genitive genetiôs (or –tious) *-ai(oi)-ous
dative genetâbon *-âbh(ô)m
ablat.-instr. genetâbin *-âbhi-m
locative genetâbin *-âbhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative genetâs *-âs girls
vocative genetâs *-âs
accusative genetâs *-âns
genitive genetânon *-ôm / *-ânôm
dative genetâbo *-âbh-(y)os
ablative genetâbi *-âbhi-s
instrumental genetâbi *-âbhi-s
locative genetâbi *-âsu
Remark: The archaic themes in –î are declined in the same way that the remaining (fa) stems. Their difference is the –î nom sg.; the acc. sg. is optionally –în or –in. The other cases either are the same or have been levelled: blêdnî (fa) “year”, rîganî (fa) “queen” (genitives blêdniâs, rîganiâs)

benâ (fa) “woman”, irregular word
Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative benâ *gwenâ/gwena woman
vocative bena woman!
accusative banin (or benin) *gwénam (Dir. Obj.)
genitive mnâs *gwnâs
dative mnâi *-gwnâi (Ind. Obj.)
ablative mnâi *-âd
instrumental mnâi
locative mnâi

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. mnâi *-ai / -oi two women
genitive baniôs (or banious) *-ai(oi)-ous
dative mnâbon *-âbh(ô)m
ablat.-instr. mnâbin *-âbhi-m
locative mnâbin *-âbhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative mnâs *gwnâs women
vocative mnâs *-âs
accusative mnâs *-âns
genitive mnânon *-ôm / *-ânôm
dative mnâbo *-âbh-(y)os
ablative mnâbi *-âbhi-s
instrumental mnâbi *-âbhi-s
locative mnâbi *-âsu
Remark: benâ is an archaic word with root alternance (*gwen-/gwn-) and originally an –a short theme. There were other short –a themes (including a few masculines!), but for practical purposes Labarion has levelled them to the regular –â themes.


* * * *

3)
–I STEMS (mi) (fi), (masculine and feminine):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative wlatis (fem.) *-is territory
vocative wlati *-i
accusative wlatin *-im (Dir. Obj.)
genitive wlatês / wlatejos *-eis
dative wlatê *-ey(ei) (Ind. Obj.)
ablative wlatî *-îd
instrumental wlatî *-î / -i
locative wlatî *-êi

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. wlatî *-î two territories
genitive wlatiôs (or wlatious) *-i-ous
dative wlatibon *-ibh(ô)m
ablat.-instr. wlatibin *-ibhi-m
locative wlatibin *-ibhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative wlaties / -îs / -ejes *-eyes territories
vocative wlatîes / -îs / -ejes *-eyes
accusative wlatîs *-îns
genitive wlation *-iôm
dative wlatibo *-ibh-(y)os
ablative wlatibi *-ibhi-s
instrumental wlatibi *-ibhi-s
locative wlatibi *-isu


NEUTER –I STEMS (ni):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nom.-voc.-acc. mori *-i sea
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine-feminine ones)

Dual: the same as Singular.

Plural:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nom.-voc.-acc. moriâ *-iâ / –ia seas
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine-feminine ones)

Remark: From –i themes on, the masculine and feminine of each stem share their declension (with some exception in the –u themes). Only the neuter goes apart, and only for the nom-voc.-acc. cases.


* * * *

4)
–U STEMS (mu) (fu), (masculine and feminine):

Singular
Case Masculine Proto-form Feminine Diphthonged
nominative catus (battle) *-us moccus (pig) bous (cow, fem)
vocative catu *-u moccu bou
accusative catun *-um moccun bûn (<*gwôm)
genitive catous / catôs *-ous/-eus moccuâs bowos
dative catou / catô *-owei moccî bowê (<*gwouei
ablative catû *-ûd moccû / moccî boû
instrumental catû *-û moccû / moccî boû
locative catû *-ôu moccû / moccî boû (orig. *-owi)

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. catû *-û moccî boû
genitive catowô *-owou moccuôs bowô
dative catoubon moccuâbon boubon
abl.-instr. catoubin *-(V)u-bhêm moccuâbin boubin
locative catoubin moccuâbin boubin

Plural
nominative catowes *-oues moccuâs bowes
vocative catowes *-oues moccuâs bowes
accusative catûs *-ûns moccuâs bûs <*gwôs
genitive catujon *-uwom moccujon bowion
dative catoubo moccuâbo boubo
ablative catoubi moccuâbi boubi
instrumental catoubi *-(V)u-bhis moccuâbi boubi
locative catoubi *-usu moccuâbi boubi

Flexion of Neuters: The same as masc.-fem. Only considering the nom.-voc.-acc. beru (nu) “pointed stake” (sg.), and beruâ “stakes” (pl.).

Remarks: The flexion of the feminine words has been partially influenced by that of (fa).
The words in original diphthong have a peculiar flexion, although Labarion has tended to regularize them to the current –u stems. There is only a few words in diphthong: dius (mu) “day”, bous (fu) “cow”, cnous (fu) “nut”, crou (nu) “blood” (accusatives diun, bûn, cnoun, croun, genitives diwos, bowos, cnowos, crowos).
The paradigm, from a very old Indo-European origin, has been mainly regularized: dius (<*dijêus), voc. diu (<*djeu), acc. diun (<*djêm), gen. diwos (<*diwós), dat. diwê (arch., <*diuéi), instr. diû <*dijû,... ), abl. and loc. assimilated to instr., as usual in Labarion.


* * * *

CONSONANTAL STEMS

1)
THEMES IN DENTAL (md) (mt) (fd) (ft):

Singular:
Case Conson.-root in -D Conson.-root in -T Proto-form of case
nominative-vocat. drûits (md) “druid” tragets (ft) “foot” *d/t –s
accusative drûiden trageten *-•m
genitive drûidos tragetos *-ós
dative drûidê tragetê *-éi
ablative drûidi trageti *-éd?
instrumental drûidi trageti *-e
locative drûidi trageti *-í

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. drûide tragete *-e
genitive drûidou / drûidô tragetou / tragetô *-ou
dative drûidobon / drûidbon tragetobon /tragetbon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. drùidobin / drûidbin tragetobin / tragetbin *-(o)-bhêm
locative drûidobin / drûidbin tragetobin / tragetbin *-(o)-bhêm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. drûides tragetes *-es
accusative drûidâs tragetâs *-•ns
genitive drûidon trageton *-om < -ôm
dative drûidobo / drûidbo tragetobo / tragetbo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative drûidobi / drûidbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental drûidobi / drûidbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-(o)-bhis
locative drûidobi / drûidbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-sú

Remarks.- To this stem belong masculine and feminine words, and they aren’t plentiful. The only important neuter in this declension is dant (nt) “tooth” (gen. dantos, nom. pl. dantâ).
Some words from this theme: welîts (mt) “mystical poet, seer” (gen. welîtos), carans (m/ft) “friend” (gen. carantos), cingets (mt) "soldier", nâmans (mt) "foe", nêts (mt) "hero, champion".
There are a few unusual nominatives, like:
moritex (mt) “sailor” (gen. moritextos), nox (ft) "night" (gen. noxtos).


* * * *

2)
THEMES IN GUTTURAL (mg) (mc) (fg) (fc):
The declension of this theme is fully parallel to that of the dental theme.

Singular:
Case Conson.-root in -D Conson.-root in -T Proto-form of case
nominative-vocat. rîx (mg) “king” ariox (mc)“nobleman *g/c –s
accusative rîgen ariocen *-•m
genitive rîgos ariocos *-ós
dative rîgê ariocê *-éi
ablative rîgi arioci *-éd?
instrumental rîgi arioci *-e
locative rîgi arioci *-í

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. rîge arioce *-e
genitive rîgou / rîgô ariocou / ariocô *-ou
dative rîgobon / rîgbon ariocobon /ariocbon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. rîgobin / rîgbin ariocobin / ariocbin *-(o)-bhêm
locative rîgobin / rîgbin ariocobin / ariocbin *-(o)-bhêm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. rîges arioces *-es
accusative rîgâs ariocas *-•ns
genitive rîgon ariocon *-om < -ôm
dative rîgobo / rîgbo ariocobo / ariocbo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative rîgobi / rîgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental rîgobi / rîgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-(o)-bhis
locative rîgobi / rîgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-sú


* * * *


3)
THEMES IN NASAL (mn) (fn):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case Meaning
nominative-vocat. cû (masc.) *kuô(n) dog, hound
accusative cunen *kun•m
genitive cunos *kunós
dative cunê *kunéi
ablative cuni = loc.
instrumental cuni = loc.
locative cuni *kuní

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. cune *-e two-dogs
genitive cunou / cunô *-ou
dative cunobon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. cunobin *-(o)-bhêm
locative cunobin *-(o)-bhêm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. cunes *-es dogs
accusative cunâs *-•ns
genitive cunon *-om < -ôm
dative cunobo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative cunobi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental cunobi *-(o)-bhis
locative cunobi *-sú


* * * *


4)
NEUTERS IN NASAL (nn):
A few cases of the nasal neuters show slight differences with regard to the masc-fem.:

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. anuan "name" camman "step" *anm•n / *kangsm•n
genitive anuês cammês *anmens / -smens
dative anuanê cammanê
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuani cammani

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. anuane cammane
genitive anuanou / anuanô cammanou / -nô
dative anuanbon cammanbon
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuanbin cammanbin

Plural:
nom.-voc.-acc. anuanâ cammanâ
genitive anuanon cammanon
dative anuanbo cammanbo *anm•n-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuanbi cammanbi *anm•n-bhis

Some words belonging to the nasal stems are: garman (nn) "shout", gobaû (mn) "smith" (genit. gobanos), talamû (mn) "earth" (genit. talamonos), brû (fn) "breast, womb" (genit. brunnos), uxû (mn) "ox" (genit. uxonos).


* * * *


5)
THEMES IN -R (mr) (fr):
Here belong only masc. and fem. nouns of relatives:

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. atîr "father" suiûr "sister" *patêr / *suesôr
accusative ateren suioren *pater•m / *suesor•m
genitive atros suioros *p3trós
dative atrê suiorê
ablat.-instr.-loc. atri suiori

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. atere suiore
genitive atrou / atrô suiorou / -rô
dative atrebon suiorebon
ablat.-instr.-loc. atrebin suiorebin

Plural:
nom.-voc. ateres suiores *pateres / *suesores
accusative aterâs suiorâs *pater•ns
genitive atron suioron *patrom < -ôm
dative atrebo suiorebo
ablat.-instr.-loc. atrebi suiorebi *paterobhis

Among the few words of this theme are: mâtîr (fr) "mother", brâtîr (mr) "broter"and awontîr (mr) "maternal oncle".


* * * *

6)
NEUTERS IN -S (ns):

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. tegos "house" nemos "heaven"
genitive tegios nemios *tegesos / *nemesos
dative teges nemes *teges(i) / *nemes(i)
ablat.-instr.-loc. teges nemes

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. tegie nemie *tegese
genitive tegiô nemiô
dative tegiobon nemiobon
ablat.-instr.-loc. tegiobin nemiobin

Plural:
nom.-voc.-acc. tegiâ nemiâ *tegesâ / *nemesâ
genitive tegion nemion *tegesom
dative tegiobo nemiobo *tegeso-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr.-loc. tegiobi nemiobi *tegeso-bhis

The old intervocalic -s- of this theme has been lost.
Some important words of this theme are also magos (ns) "field" and letos (ns) "side".


* * * *

7)
SOME IRREGULAR AND UNDECLINABLE NOUNS:

In Labarion are undeclinable especially those foreign words and names with a structure difficult to accord with the rules of the native language:

Itâjûmî in New York sindiû "I go to New York today"
Alexander coi essi. Slânosepi do Alexander "Here is Alexander. Say hello to Alexander"

Irregular native words are unusual, because the language tends to include them into regular paradigms. But a somewhat particular word is mîss or mîts (<*mêns) "month", gen. mîssos (<*mênsos), cf. OIr. mí, mís; mîss is masculine and otherwise declined as a typical consonantal theme (nom. pl. mîsses, etc.).



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Olivier Simon

Olivier Simon

Messages : 4820
Date d'inscription : 20/02/2009
Localisation : Lorraine

Labarion (Alounis) Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 9:43

LABARISH ADJECTIVES

In Labarion, adjectives must agree with the nouns they qualify, in their gender, number and case:
wiros mâros "big man" (nominative sig. masculine)
benâ mârâ "big woman" (nominative sing. feminine)
cridion mâron "big heart" (nominative sing. neuter)
wiri mâri "of a big man" (genitive), mnâs mâriâs "of a big woman", cridij mâri "of a big heart",...... etc.

The noun-adjective order is free; the sentence emphasis or personal style lead to use an order or the another:
wirij mârij or mârij wirij "big men".
Nevertheless, the order noun + adjective tends to be predominant (it is the order that finally won in Insular Celtic).


Declension of Adjectives

The declension of adjectives is similar to that of the nouns, but adjectives belong barely to only four declension themes:

Thematic adjectives : masculines in -os, feminines in -â and neuters in -on.
Adjectives in -i : masc. and femin. in -is and neuters in -i.
Adjectives in -u : masc. and fem. in -us and neuters in -u.
Consonantal adjectives : they are very scarce; barely a couple of archaic formations.

- Most of adjectives belong to the thematic theme,
- Adjectives in -i are also abundant,
- There are not many adjectives in -u, and moreover they tend to slip to the -i theme,
- Consonantal adjectives are rare archaisms, like têns "warm" (genit. têntos).

In the Labarish grammar, every adjective is presented in the same way as adjectives in classical Latin grammar: the masculine form (or common masc.-fem.) followed by the abridged form of the remaining genders:
mâros -â -on "big, great" (thematic)
matis -i "good" (in -i)
dubus -u "black" (in -u)

Thematic adjectives
"big, great" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. mâros mâron mârâ mârij mârâ mârâs
vocat. mâre mâron mâra mârûs mârâ mârâs
accus. mâron mâron mârin mârûs mârâ mârâs
genit. mâri = mâriâs mâron = mârânon
dat. mârû = mârî mârobo = mârâbo
ablat. mârû = mârî mârobi = mârâbi
instr. mârû = mârî (-iâ) mârobi = mârâbi
locat. mârê = mârî mârobi = mârâbi

Adjectives in -i
"fine, fair" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. canis cani = masc. canejes caniâ = masc.
vocat. cani cani = masc. canejes caniâ = masc.
accus. canin cani = masc. canîs caniâ = masc.
genit. canês = caniâs canion = =
dat. canê = = masc. canibo = =
ablat. canî = = masc. canibi = =
instr. canî = = masc. canibi = =
locat. canî = = masc. canibi = =

Adjectives in -u
"black" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. dubus dubu dubus dubijes dubiâ dubiâs
vocat. dubu dubu dubu dubijes dubiâ dubiâs
accus. dubun dubu dubuin dubûs dubiâ dubiâs
genit. dubous/-ôs = dubuâs dubujon = =
dat. dubou / ô = dubuî dubuibo = dubuâbo
ablat. dubû = dubuî dubuibi = dubuâbi
instr. dubû = dubuî dubuibi = dubuâbi
locat. dubû = dubuî dubuibi = dubuâbi

As it may be noticed, the differences between the declesion of nouns and adjectives fall on -i and -u themes, which show a certain degree of mixture between the different themes (and the -u themes tending to enter -i themes, a stage almost completely reached in the later Old Irish).


Prefixed and Suffixed Adjectives

Prefixing and suffixing adjectives usually change the meaning of the resulting word, so creating a new word.

Some adjectives are used only as prefixes.
du- "bad": wiros "man" > duwiros "a bad man"
leto- "half": letowiros "a half-man"
misso- "false, pseudo-" (cfs. English mis-): missowiros "an seeming, false man"
su- "good": suwiros "a good man" (metaphorically, a nobleman, a non-slave)

dago- "good" and druco- "bad" can be used both as prefixes and as loose adjectives:
dagowiros or wiros dagos "good, kind man".

Other examples:
dubnos "deep" and mâros "big", when suffixed, modify the word in some sense:

brigâ "value, price" > brigomâros "valuable, precious" ('of-great-price')
britus "mind" > britumâros "intelligent"
condariâ "anger, rage" > condaridubnos "furious, very irascible"
nerton "strenght" > nertomâros "powerful, potent"
togis "pleasant, nice" > togidubnos "very pleasant"

(these formations use to appear in personal names)


Comparison of Adjectives

Degreees of comparison:
Equative: "as ... as" (con-) (or -isetos -â -on) (occasionally con- + -iseto-)
Comparative: "-er" (-iûs)
Superlative: "-est" (-isamos -â -on)

The second element of a comparison is put in the ablative case.

About the equative, the forms with -iseto- are used in some primitive adjectives, being such an use somewhat irregular; composed and derivated adjectives use the con- form.

Cawaros axrisetos monijû "a giant as tall as a mountain" (equative)
Cawaros axriûs monijû "a giant taller than a mountain" (comparative)
Cawaros axrisamos "the tallest giant" (superlative)

Declension of Comparison

Equative and superlative are declined like ordinary adjectives in -os -â -on, but the comparative is declined like an archaic -s theme:

"white" masc-fem. sg. proto-f. neuter proto-f. masc-fem. pl. proto-f. neuter proto-f.
nom. windiûs *-yôs windios *-yos windies *-oses windiâ *-yosah
accus. windian *-yos•m " windiâs *-yos•ns "
genitive windios *-yesos = windion *-yesom =
remaining
cases windies *-yes-i = windiobi =

Lorgos cawari axrios monijû "the club of a giant taller than a mountain"




Irregular Gradations

In the western languages, some basic adjectives do have irregular gradations in the way of English 'good-better-best'. In Labarion this covers about a dozen of adjectives:

equative comparative superlative
adgossus -u
"close, near" nessetos -â -on
"as close" nessiûs -ios
"closer" nessamos -â -on
"closest"
biccos -â -on
"little, small" biccisetos -â -on
"as little" lagiûs -ios
"smaller" lagisamos -â -on
"smallest"
cintus -u
"first" (no form) cintiûs -ios
"first more" cintamos -â -on
"foremost"
dagos -â -on
"good" condagos -â -on
"as good" wellos -â -on
"better" werowos -â -on
"best"
drucos -â -on
"bad" condrucos -â -on
"as bad" wextos -â -on
"worse" wextamos -â -on
"worst"
elus -u
"many" comantis -i
"as many"(cf. mâro-) lejûs -u
"much more" (no form)
isselos -â -on
"low" issetos -â -on
"as low" issiûs -ios
"lower" issamos -â -on
"lowest"
jowincos -â -on
"young" jowincetos -â -on
"as young" jewûs -wos
"younger" jewisamos -â -on
"youngest"
letanos -â -on
"broad, wide" cobletos -â -on
"as broad" letis -i
"wider" letisamos -â -on
"widest"
mâros -â -on
"big, great" comantis -i
"as big" mejos -â -on
"bigger" mei(s)amos -â -on
"biggest"
sîros -â -on
"long" cositos -â -on
"as long" sejûs -ios
"longer" sejamos -â -on
"longest"
tresnos -â -on
"poweful" trexetos -â -on
"as powerful" trexiûs -ios
"more powerful" trexamos -â -on
"most powerful"
uxelos -â -on
"high" uxisetos
(or uxetos) -â -on
"as high" uxiûs -ios
"higher" uxisamos
(or uxamos) -â -on
"highest"












LABARISH NUMERALS – RÎMÂS LABARIÂCAS

Cardinals.-
(1 to 4 are declined, and they differentiate masc., fem. and neuter):

1 oinos –â –on (<*oinos, *oinâ, *oinom)
2 dâu (m.), duî (f.), dâu (n.) (<*dùôu, *dùai, *dùô(u))
3 trijes (m.), tedres (f.), trî (n.) (<*treyes, *tesores, *trî)
4 petuares (m.), petedres (f.), petuâr (n.) (<*kwetuores, *kwetesores, *kwetuôr)

oinos –â –on = declined like a thematic adjective
(V. Declension Stems – Vocalic Stems 1) & 2)

“two”.- masculine & neuter feminine
Nom. dâu duî
Voc. dâu duî
Acc. dâu duî
Gen. duojô (<*duaiiô) duâjô
Dat. duobon duâbon
Abl.-Ins.-Loc. duobin duâbin

“three”.- masculine feminine neuter
Nom. trijes tedres trî
Voc. trije tedre trî
Acc. trîs (<*trins) tedrâs trî
Gen. trion (<*triyom) tedron (= masc.)
Dat. triobo tedrobo (=masc.)
Abl.-Ins.-Loc. triobi tedrobo (=masc.)

“four”.- masculine feminine neuter
Nom. petuares petedres petuâr
Voc. petuare petedre petuâr
Acc. peturîs (from /trîs/) petedrâs petuâr
Gen. peturon (<*kweturom) petedron (= masc.)
Dat. peturobo petedrobo (= masc.)
Abl.-Ins-Loc. peturobi petedrobi (= masc.)

---------

(From 5 to 10 are undeclinable and have no gender):

5 pinpe or penpe (<*kwenkwe)
6 suex (<*sweks)
7 sextan (<*sept•m)
8 oxtû (<*oktô)
9 nawan (<*naw•n)
10 decan (<*dek•mt)

-----------

(From 11 to 19 are undeclinable, following the pattern of decan;
Composite forms for ‘3’ and ‘4’ are trî- and petru-):

11 oinodecan
12 dâudecan
13 trîdecan
14 petrudecan
15 pinpedecan
16 suexdecan
17 sextadecan
18 oxtûdecan
19 naudecan

---------

20 wîcantî (mt)

(20 has a substantival, not an adjectival, nature. It’s declined only in dual number and must be followed by the plural genitive of the calified word:
wîcantî wironon wîcantî-c mnânon “twenty men and twenty women”)

Nom. wîcantî
Acc. wîcantî
Gen. wîcantô
Dat. wîcantobon
Abl-Ins.-Loc. wîcantobin

-----------

30 trîcons (mt, Gen. -ontos, <*trîkomt)
40 petrucons
50 pinpecons
60 suescons
70 sextacons
80 oxtûcons
90 naucons
100 canton (no, <*k•mtom)
200 dâu-canton, etc.
1.000 geslon (no, <*gheslom, cf. Skt. sa-hásram, Greek ion. khéllioi)

(30 to 90 are (mt) themes, compounded with –cons/-contos; 100 is an (no) theme. They are followed by the plural genitive of the calified word:
canton petrucons eponon “a hundred and forty horses”,
pennâ pinpecontos wironon “the heads of fifty men”
geslon dijon werbûe “a thousand days passed off”


The combinations of digits, tens and hundreds run like the following examples:

“148 men” = canton petrucons wironon eti oxtû
“the heads of 121 men” = pennâ canti wîcantô wironon eti oini
“87 boats” = oxtûcons nâwânon eti sextan
“2.132 soldiers” = dâugeslon canton trîcons cingeton eti dâu
“112 spears over 112 carts” = canton gajonon dâudecan wer cantû carronon dâudecan
“the hair of three women” = tidron mnânon woltij
“three hairs of woman” = trijes banowoltij

----------





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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 9:44

LABARISH ADVERBS & CONJUNCTIONS.-

aiwî = always, ever (<*aiuo- “life(time)”, do aiwî “for ever”)
an? = (interr.) maybe?
anne? = (interr.) perhaps not? isn’t?
ate = again
auc = for, because (<*au –kwe)
canti = therefore, then (<*kanta + id)
cei, cij = here
ceti = although
cuti? = where? (<*kwu-)
deis, dês = yesterday (<*gdiiés)
duci = as (<*du-cî “to this/here”)
endo = there
eri = because (<*(p)eri)
eti, -c = and (*eti, *-kwe)
etic = moreover (<*eti-kwe)
extos = but
ixe, -ue (-we) = or (*iste, *-ue)
jon = while, when (<*iom)
ma = if (<*smâ)
ne = no, not
nec, nac = and-not (<*ne-kwe)
newe = nor (<*ne-ue)
nu = now
panî = when? (<*kwanâi “in what”)
pari? = why? (<*kwa-(p)eri)
po = how? (<*kwod)
samalî = likewise; (+ acc.) as, “in likeness to” (<*samalîd)
sindiû = today
sinnoxti = tonight
sosio = that (rel.) (<*so-siod)
suâ = so, thus (<*suâd)
toni = also


Moreover, whatever adjective may be used adverbially only by putting it in Instrumental case, either in accusative after the preposition inti:
nowiû “newly”,
inti nowion “newly, anew, in a new way” (cf. Welsh /yn newydd/)
mârû “greatly”, romârû “very-greatly”
etc.

* * * *
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 9:44

LABARISH PREPOSITIONS

Due to their systematical pretonic position, prepositions use to undergo phonetical reductions. Some of them are fossilized case-forms of current words: (*sekwôd) > sepû > sepu; oncon > onco .

Comparative Indo-european Lingüistics show that some prepositions governed the instrumental case (wer vg.), but in Labarion ablative and instrumental have in practice fused. All simplifying, we can consider as the ablative this generally governed case.
In Labarion all the prepositions govern one of two cases: either accusative or ablative-instrumental; the partial exception is in “in”, which governs the locative case along with the ablative.

ac (+ ) = along with (*ad-ghe, W. â, ac)
ad (+ acc.) = towards (*ad-; OIr. ad, W. ad > at)
ambi (+ acc.) = around, about (*•mbhi; OIr. imm, W. am)
ande (+ acc.) = under, beneath (*•ndhe, OIr. ind, W. tan <*to-andh-)
are (+ acc.) = for the sake of, because of
/ (+ abl.) = before (*pari-, OIr. air er, MW. ar)
au (+ abl.) = from, away from (*au(e); OIr. ó úa, W. o)
canta (+ acc.) = by, with (*k•nta, OIr. cét- ceta•, MW. MB. cant)
cena (+ acc.) = without (*ke- “this” + -na, OIr. cen)
con (+ abl.) = with (*kom, OIr. co –n, MW. ky-t?)
do (+ abl.) = to, for (*to; OIr. do du, OB. do da, Celtib. to)
entra (+ acc.) = into, inside (*entrâd, Celtib. e.n.ta.r.a., cf. ‘extra’)
eri (+ abl.) = about (*peri, OIr. ir, W. B. er)
êron (+ abl.) = after (*epirom; OIr. íar
ex (+ abl.) = out of, ex (*eks; OIr. ess, MW. ech)
extra (+ acc.) = outside (*ekstrâd, OIr. echtar, MW eithyr)
in (+ acc.) = into, to
/ (+ abl./loc.) = in, at (*eni; OIr. OW. OB. in)
inter (+ acc.) = between, among (*enter; OIr. etir eter, OW. ithr)
inti (+ acc.) = with (instrumental) (*•nti, OIr. ind, W. yn, compare English “and”)
îss (+ acc.) = underneath (*pêdsu “to the feet”, OIr. ís, W. is)
onco (+ abl.) = beside, next to (*onkom, OIr. oc, W. wnc)
po (+ acc.) = till, until (*kwo-?; OIr. co, MW. py)
raco (+ acc.) = before (*prôkom, W. rhag, B. rak)
sepu (+ acc.) = past, beyond (*sekwôd; OIr. sech, W. heb “without”)
trâs (+ acc.) = across, beyond (*trâns, W. tros, cf. OIr. tar <*tar-es)
trei (+ acc.) = through (*t3ri > *trei; OIr. tre tri, W. trwy)
ûx (+ acc.) = above, over (*ouks, OIr. ós úas, W. uwch)
wêdo (+ abl.) = in presence of (*ueidos, n. “sight”, OIr. fíad, MW. erwyd <*are-uidh-)
wer (+ acc.) = up, upwards
/ (+ abl.) = on, upon (*upér(i); OIr. for, OW. OB. guor guar, Celtib. uer-)
wo (+ acc.) = downwards
/ (+ abl.) = under (*upo; OIr. fo, OW. guo)
writto (+ acc.) = against; opposite (*u•rt-tos “turned”, OIr. frith, W. wrth, B. ouzh)


These prepositions use to undergo phonetical changes according to the word that follows them:
- ad changes to at before t-.
- ex changes to es before words beginning with c- g- n-, and it’s aspirated before words beginning with r- t-.
- onco, raco, writto are frequently reduced to onc, rac, writ before a word beginning with vowel.
- con, êron and in change to com, êrom and im before a word beginning with m-.


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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 11:10


LABARISH PRONOUNS.-

Personal Pronouns.-

1st.-2nd. Sg.
IE. protoform Labarion Meaning IE. protoform Labarion Meaning
(*eghom) mî “I, me” Nom. *tû tû “thou” Nom.
*me(go)/-m me Acc. *t(u)e te Acc.
*men mou / mon Gen. *tewe tou Gen.
*moi moi / moj Dat. *t(u)ei tei / tij Dat.
*med me Abl.(Ins-Loc) *t(u)ed te Abl.(Ins-Loc)
The nominative mî doesn’t come from the original IE *eghom.
The genitive form mou of mî is due to an influence from 2nd person tou.

1st.-2nd. Pl.
IE. protoform Labarion Meaning IE. protoform Labarion Meaning
*(s)nês nîs “we” Nom. *swês suîs “you” Nom.
*nos nos Acc. *(s)wos suos Acc.
*•nsom anson Gen. *(s)wosom sueson Gen.
*•nsmei amê Dat. *usmei umê Dat.
*•nsed anse Abl.(Ins-Loc) *usmed ume Abl.(Ins-Loc)
The gen. sueson has an influence from another proto-form: *suesrom.
The Dat.-Abl. amê umê ume have become in a very reduced form (original ammê, etc. seldom used).

3rd. Sg.
IE. protoforms masc. neuter fem.
*is *id(â) *î îs “he” idâ “it” sî “she” Nom.
*im *iy•m in / jin / ejon idâ sian Acc.
*esyo / *esyâs ejo = masc. ejâs Gen.
*esmôi,*esiôi,-âi ejû = masc. ejî / ejij Dat.
*esmôd *esyâd emû / ejû = masc. ejâ Abl.-(Inst-Loc.)
The masc. accus. varies its shape (in/jin/ejon) according to the surrounding words.
The masc.-neut. dative ejû is a reshaping, shared with Latin /eo/.
The masc.-neut. ablative ejû is also a new reshaping (< *esyôd). The archaic form emû is seldom used.


3rd. Pl.
IE. protoforms masc. neuter fem.
*eyes/ioi *î*iyâs eis / ei “they” î / ejâ sîes / ejâs Nom.
*ins *î *iyâns ejûs / sos î / ejâ ejâs Acc.
*eisôm ejonon = masc. ejânon Gen.
*eibhyos ejobo = masc. ejâbo Dat.
*eibhys ejobi = masc. ejâbi Abl.-(Inst-Loc.)
In Celtic the original Nom. pl. masc. *ioi > *jei (> *ei > W. wy). In Labarion dialect, ei takes usually an -s by influence of the noun non-thematic declensions.
About the Nom. pl. neuter, the original IE form was *î; Labarion prefers to use the alternative form ejâ <*eiâ. It shares this outcome with Gothic (ija) and Latin (ea).
Sos is a particular development of Celtic (<*sôns), basis for Insular –s-, -(h)o- (OIr. –u –su <*sûs); maybe an interference of the demonstrative system (*so- “that”). Moreover, Labarion has ejûs, a regular development from the root *esyo- (cf. Latin /eos/).
Ejonon/ejânon are secondary developments based on the Gaulish inscription of Larzac (/eianom anuana/). At the same inscription is found /eiabi/ = ejâbi in Labarish spelling.

* * * *

Demonstrative Pronouns.-

The basic original paradigm is so(s), sâ, so “that” (from an original sense “this/that”).

(SING.) Masc. Proto-form Neuter Proto-form Fem. Protoform
Nominative so(s) *so so *sod <*tod sâ *sâ
Accusative son *tom so *sod <*tod sân *tâm
Genitive sojo *tosyo (= masc.) sojâs *tosyâs
Dative sojû
(somû)(arch.) *tosyôi
(*tosmôi) (= masc.) sojî *tosyâi
Ablative-(Instr.) sojû
(somû)(arch.) *tosyôd
(*tosmôd) (= masc.) sojâ *tosyâd
Locative somi
(seldom used) (*tosmi) (= masc.) --


(PLUR.) Masc. Proto-form Neuter Proto-form Fem. Proto-form
Nominative soj *toi sanâ *tanâ <*tâ sâs *tâs
Accusative sûs / sos *tôns/*tons sanâ *tanâ <*tâ sâs *tâns
Genitive sojon *toisôm (= masc.) sâson *tâsôm
Dative soibo *toibhyos (= masc.) sâbo *tâbhyos
Abl.-Instr.-Loc. soibi *toibhy-s (= masc.) sâbi *tâbhy-s

Reduplicated forms: After loss of intervocalic -s-, Labarion re-shaped the so- paradigm with a parallel reduplicated set of forms. Their meaning is but a bit more emphatic than the original ones:
(masc.) soso(s), soson, sosi, sosiû (pl.) sosij, sosûs, soson, (*sosoibo -ibi are not used)
(neuter) sosin, sosin etc. (pl.) sosanâ (seldom used)
(fem.) sosâ, sosiân, sosâs, sosî, sosiâ (pl.) sosâs, sosâs, (the remaining, as the regular paradigm)
On the other hand, an undeclined base so/se is often used before long phrases. So it’s more usual to find so wironon dagon “of these good men” instead sojon wironon dagon, which is felt as more “affected” or poetic.

1st. deixis: the so- paradigm in Labarion has been moved to the 2nd. deixis (“that”) by the new formation sondos, sondâ, sindon “this” (cf. Welsh hwn, hon, hyn “this”, and Old Irish sund “here” <*sondû “with/in this”).
3rd. deixis: “that (yonder)”: sindos, sindâ, sin. This re-formation achieved an ultimate great success in the insular Celtic languages, becoming the article: *sindos uiros “that man” > (OIr.) ind fer “the man”.
Both sondos and sindos paradigms are declined as regular thematic stems. But the neuter nominative-accus. form of the last is sin (pl. sindâ).

Other formations:
sodejos, -â -on “that (anaphoric)” (<*so-de-sos, OIr. suide)
ixos, -â, -on “such” (<*isto-, Locat. *istei >(reduced form) ixe “or”)
sios, -â, sin “this, that” (emphatic: mî-sios “me-here” = OIr. messe)
somos, -â, -on “this very, the same” (OIr. –som)

* * * *

Reflexive Pronoun.-

The basic form sue- is used:
1) prefixed to ordinary nouns: suegnatos ejo “his own son”, sueepij mon “my own horses”.
2) prefixed to 3rd person pronouns. Here it can bear the enclitic particle de “thus” for emphasis (cf. OIr. féin, fadein, etc.): suejis, suedejis “he himself”, suesî, suedesî “she herself”.
3) for the 1st and 2nd persons, it’s prefixed to the undeclined demonstrative sin: mî suesin/suedesin “I myself”, tej suesin “for yourself”.

* * * *


Possessive Pronouns.-

It’s used the genitive form of personal pronouns. It can go before or after the calified word:
carros mou or mou carros “my car”
pennon tou or tou pennon “your head”

The possessive pronouns are substantivized in this way:
mowos –â-on “mine”, ansonos –â –on “ours”
towos –â -on “thyne”, suesonos –â –on “yours”
For 3rd person it’s used suejos –â -on, (pl.) suejonos –â -on, suejânos –â -on.


* * * *


Relative Pronoun.-

The original relative pronoun *ios *iâ *iod still conserved its full flexion system in Celtiberian; but in the late Gaulish dialects, as Labarion, and so in late Insular Celtic, the relative pronoun has lost its autonomy and it’s used essentially as a clitic.
In Labarion the relative pronoun is used in three ways:

1) A re-shaped neuter accusative jon (<*iom) means “when”: jon bûan maruij “when they were dead” (cf. OIr. a m-bátar “when they were”, reconstructed as /*sen buant•r/ either /*ion buant•r/).
2) As a neuter undeclined particle (jo <*iod), which may be optionally attached to the related word either go alone:
mercâ carâjûjo “the girl I love” (carâjû-jo “(who)I-love”),
mercâ jo carâjû “the girl I love”.
Both are correct. The loose form is a remainder from that time in what the relative had a full autonomy.
3) when attached to any word (noun, adjective, verb...) the whole form may be substantivized, becoming a new word with relative sense:
wiros “man” > wirios “manly” (“who is a man”)
windos “white (masc.)” > windios “the white one” (“who is white”)
This use is spread in personal names, as it can be seen in general Gaulish: Windiâ “the white one (fem.)”, Burrios “the sturdy one”.

As for the verbal based forms, to take in account that those formed upon the bare root do have an active meaning:
sagios “who searchs” (sagiet “searchs”)
wicios “who fights” (wicet “fights”)
but those forms with -t- have a passive meaning, as they are truly passive participles:
sagetios “(who is) searched”
wicetios “(who is) fought”
A remainder of the old Indo-European active participle (-nt-) is used only relative-suffixed:
sagiontios “who searchs, searcher”
wicontios “who fights, fighter”
All the above forms are declined in the usual way, as noun and adjectives.

On the other hand expressions like “whom, which” are often translated with ixos + relat.-io:
Sondos wiros, ixi nemmijo gnatos “this man, of whom I’m not a son”
(“of-such no-am-that son”)

* * * *

Interrogative Pronoun.-

In Labarion this flexion has mixed two original variants (cf. latin ‘quid’ and ‘quod’). The common nom. sing. masc.-fem. (peis, cf. OIr. cía, Welsh pwy) is an archaism. Flexion:

SING. Masc. Neuter Fem.
Nom-Voc. peis *kweis pidâ *kwid +idâ peis *kweis
Accus. pon *kwom pidâ *kwid +idâ pân *kwâm
Genit. pejo *kwesyo = pejâs *kwesyâs
Dat. pejû *kwesôi = pejî *kwesâi
Abl.-Instr. pî *kwî = pî *kwî
Locat. pei *kwei = pî *kwî

PLUR. Masc. Neuter Fem.
Nom-Voc. pejes/pies *kweyes pî/pinâ *kî pejâs *kwesâs
Accus. pîs *kwins pî/pinâ *kî pejâs *kwesâs
Genit. pejon *kweisôm = pejânon *kwâsôm
Dat. pejobo *kweibhyos = pejâbo *kwâbhy-
Abl.-Instr. pejobi *kweibhy-s = pejâbi *kwâbhy-
Locat. pejobi *kweibhy-s = pejâbi *kwâbhy-


* * * *


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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 11:11

LABARION: The Verb “to be”.-


Present Indicative.- Imperfect Indicative.-
I am emi / emmi < *ésmi I was ejan / eja < *ês•m
thou art ei < *ési you were (sg) ejâi < *êsâsi
is essi < *ésti was ejât < *êsât
we are emos/emmos < *smós(i) we were ejâmos < *esâmos
you are esue < *sté +su(es) you were ejâte < *esâte
they are sent(i) < *sénti they were ejânt < *esânt


Consuetudinal Present Future
I use to be bijû < *bhuiìô I’ll be bisiû < *bhui-SI-ô
you use to be bijes you’ll be bisies
uses to be bijet < *bhuiìet will be bisiet < *bhui-SIE-t
we use to be bijomos we’ll be bisiomos
you use to be bijete you’ll be bisiete
they use to be bijont they will be bisiont

Preterite
I was (far in the past) bûan / bûa / (buwân) < *buwan < *bheu-â-m
you were (sg.) bûas / (buwâs) < *buwâs
was buwe / bûe < *bheu-
we were bûamos
you were bûate
they were bûant / (buwânt) < *buwânt

Present Subjunctive Preterite Subjunctive
I may be bujû (if) I was bejonna < *-oiH1-m-
you may be bues (if) you were bejotâs <*-oiH1-tH2-
may be buet < *bhu- (if) was bejoto < *oiH1-to
we may be buomos (if) we were bejomos <*-oiH1mos-
you may be buete (if) you were bejotei / -tê <*-oiH1-tesoi
they may be buont (if) they were bejonto < *-oiH1-nto

Present Imperative Future Imperative
--- ---
be! (thou) bije < *bh(u)i-e be! (thou) bijetû
let’s be((s)he) bijeto < *-tou ? let’s be bijetû < *-tôd
let’s be (we) bijomos ---
be you bijete be you bijetû
let’s be (they) bijonto let’s be (they) bijontû < *-ntôd


Nominal forms of the verb.-

Active participle: bujaunos –â –on “who (is) being, (a) being” < *bh(e)u-•mno-
Passive participle: butos –â –on “been” (OIr. •both)
Gerundive: buetejos –â –on “who (is) for to be” (OIr. buithi)
Verbal noun: butâ (fa) “to be, being”, Abl.-instr. butî “in being, being”.


x x x x

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Labarion (Alounis) Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 11:12

LABARION VERBAL SYSTEM



GENERAL SKETCH OF THE VERB:

Three moods: indicative, subjuntive, imperative.
Two voices: active and mediopassive

Indicative (4 tenses): present, imperfect, preterite, future.
Subjuntive (2 tenses) : present, preterite.
Imperative (2 tenses): present, future.

Nominal forms of the verb: active participle, passive participle, gerundive, verbal noun.

(Remark.- The imperfect is used modally in a conditional sense)


CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS: Weak and Strong Verbs

WEAK VERBS:

(AI) weak verbs in –Â (-â is attached to the verbal root):
itÂjû, itÂs, itÂt ... “I go, you go, goes...”
(AII) weak verbs in –Î (-î is attached to the verbal root):
râdIJû, râdÎs, râdÎt... “I speak, you speak, speaks...”

(Another ancient class, verbs in diphthong (AIII): bAJû, bAJEs, bAJEt “I die, you die, dies...” in Labarion have been superseded by the (BII) classes, sometimes by the (AII) classes)

STRONG VERBS:

(BI) verbs with thematic vowel -e/-o:
cingÛ, cingEs, cingEt... “I walk, you walk, walks...”
(BII) verbs with -ie/-io:
gabIû, gabIEs, gabIEt... “I take, you take, takes...”
(BIII) verbs with non-radical –n:
boNgû, boNges, boNget... “I break, you break, breaks...”
(BIV) verbs with -na- suffixed:
beNAmi, beNAi, beNAt... “I cut, you cut, cuts...”
(BV) verbs with -nu- suffixed:
gniNUmi, gniNUi, gniNUt... “I recognize, you recognize, recognizes...”

Remarks.- Weak verbs use to be derived from nouns and adjectives (although there are some primitive verbs). Strong verbs are usually primitives (from a verbal root).
Weak and Strong verbs differ in some aspects of their conjugaisons.


PRONOUN-VERBAL PARTICLES

Celtic languages tend to be emphatic regarding the actors of the sentence. In Labarion, verbal forms can be optionally reinforced by adding to them some pronominal particle:
mî I, me
tû you (sg.)
i(s) he
sî she
i(d) i(t) it
nîs we
suîs you (pl.)
eis they (masc.)
ejâs they (fem.)

Now, if for the sake of expressiveness the verb is carried to head of sentence, to be accompanied by the pronoun is OBLIGATORY:
epon gabiû “the-horse I-take”
epon gabiû-mî “the-horse I-take myself”
gabiu-mî epon “I-myself-take the-horse” (obligatory form)

In absence of any given pronoun-verbal particle, it’s added –i(d). Two different words have been confused here: reduced form of the pronoun is/idâ “he/it” and a meaningless particle < *ide (IE. “here”). The function of –i(d) (either -it) is similar to classical Greek “dé” but usually accompanies the verb.
Optionally, another similar form: it(a), precedes the verb. Its original meaning is “thus”, but it’s used often like a pure preverbal particle.

gabiet-i mapos epon “Takes-(particle) the-boy the-horse”
ita gabiet mapos epon “Thus takes the-boy the-horse”
These kind of sentences, which in Insular Celtic will become the regular pattern, are felt in Labarion as very emphatic, being a more usual pattern: Mapos gabiet epon.

There are other conjuctions that may supply ita and –id, in a logical context of speech. Only one particle or pronoun attracts the verb to the head.


ACTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE

(AI) (AII) (BI)
anâjû I breathe arciû I ask delgû I hold
anâi you breathe arcîj you ask delges you hold
anât breathes arcît asks delget holds
anâmos we br. arcîmos we ask delgomos we hold
anâte you br. arcîte you ask delgete you hold
anânt they br. arcînt they ask delgont they hold

(BII) (BIII) (BIV) (BV)
gariû I call dengû I oppress binami I strike linumi I flow
garies you call denges you oppress binai you strike linui you flow
gariet calls denget oppresses binat strikes linut flows
gariomos we call dengomos we oppr. binamos we strike linumos we flow
gariete you call dengete you oppr. binate you strike linute you flow
gariont they call dengont they oppr. binant they strike linunt they flow

Remarks.- In Class (BIV) the final –ami does not contain the pronoun, but it’s a direct descendant of Indo-European primary endings (compare Greek dídômi); nevertheless a certain confussion has raised in the language between this ending and the regular pronouns (which have at last the same origin), confussion that is spreading to the rest of verbal classes. From here comes some anarchy in the use (and the ultimate fusion in ulterior Insular languages).
Related to it is the 2 sg. –ai < -asi, whereas the alternative form –es <*-es comes from the IE. secondary ending, by itself either fused with an apocopated primary ending (*-es(i) ).
Class (BV) is very meagre; it encloses barely three or four verbs.

* * * *


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

The Subjuntive stem possesses two modalities:
1) The strong verbs with root ended in dental (T, D) or guttural (K, G) take -se directly added to the root, conjugated like a (BI) verb:
resset “may run” <*ret-SE-t, wrexet “may do” <*ureg-SE-t.
2) All the remaining verbs (weak and strong) have original *-h1se- ending, adapted as follows:
The (AI) verbs assimilate the laryngal to the vowel ending -â, vg.: itâit “may go” <*itâset
The (AII) verbs assimilate the laryngal to the vowel ending -î, vg.: arcîet “may ask” <*arcîset
The strong verbs adapt it as *–ase directly added to the root, vg.: essait “may ate” <*essaset, biait “may strike” <*biaset
In this group of verbs, the 1st sing. form ends in -ân instead of -û.


(AI) (AII) (BI)
anân I may breathe arcîân I may ask *delg-S(e)-ô > delxû I may hold
anâji you may br. arcîei you may ask *delg-SE-s > delxes you ..
anâit (s)he .. arcîet (s)he .. delxet (s)he..
anâomos we .. arcîomos we .. delxomos we ..
anâite you .. arcîete you ... delxete you ..
anâont they .. arcîont they .. delxont they ..

(BII) (BIII) (BIV) (BV)
garân I may call dexû I may oppress biân I may strike linân I may flow
garaiss you .. dexes you .. biaji you .. linaji you ..
garait (s)he .. dexet (s)he .. biait (s)he .. linait (s)he ..
garaomos we ... dexomos we .. biaomos we .. linaomos we ..
garaite you .. dexete you .. biaite you .. linaite you ..
garaont they .. dexont they .. biaont they .. linaont they ..


* * * *


PRETERITE

The preterite is formed according to the following patterns:
1) weak verbs have -s preterite, with usual shortening of the post-root vowel (except in some verbs with secondary hiatus, resulting in -î- or -ê-):
arcissû, arcisses, arcis, arcissames, arcissate, arcissant "I asked, thou asketh,...."
(the flexion of the -s preterite uses thematic forms for the sg., and non-thematic for the pl.)
2) strong verbs in -l and -r and some in nasal and guttural, have a t- preterite.
axtû, axtes, axti, axtomes, axtete, axton "I drove...." (*ag-t-) from aget (BI)
gartû, gartes, garti, gartomes, gartete, garton "I called...." from gariet (BII)
orxtû, orxtes, orxti, orxtomes, orxtete, orxton "I killed..." from orget (BI)
3) the remaining strong verbs have suffixless preterite, and there are two formations,
a) reduplicated:
biban, bibas, bibe, bibames, bibate, bibant "I struck...." from binat (BIV)
b) unreduplicated:
gâda, gâdas, gâde, gâdames, gâdate, gâdant , from guediet (BII) "prays"

4) A few special preterites must be learned apart. For example, two strong verbs with root ended in -b have s- preterite:
ibet (BI) "drinks", makes a preterite in -i-: ibissû, ibisses, ibis,....
gabiet (BII) "takes", makes a preterite in -a-: gabassû, gabasses, gabas,...
5) The verb sagiet (BII) "seeks" has a -t and reduplicated preterite at once:
sioxtû, sioxtes, sioxti, sioxtemes, sioxtete, sioxton (<*se-sag-t-, OIr. siacht-, Gaul. sioxti)
6) The verb sediet (BII) "sits" has a -s preterite and reduplicated at once, and moreover inflected as a deponent:
siossûr, siossetar, siossar, siossomor, siossete, siossontor (<*se-sod-s-, OIr. síassair)


* * * *


THE DEPONENT AND THE PASSIVE.

A deponent verb is a verb inflected as a passive but having an active meaning (its origin is really medial, i.e. the verbal action comes out from the subject but falls upon the very subject: labarûr ' I speak').
In the historical insular languages, deponent had already disappeared from Brittonic since the oldest documents, and in Old Irish it was in regression.
Labarion is a Celtic dialect six centuries older than the oldest insular texts (putting aside the Ogham materials, scarcely containing more than personal names) and thus Labarion maintains a full deponent and passive inflection parallel to Latin indeed.
Moreover, Labarion maintains a passive-impersonal form, a very archaic trait not shared with Latin but shared with Umbrian and Hittite instead, and rather curiously it is the only trait of this paradigm fully conserved by insular languages, Brittonic included.


DEPONENT ACTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE

(AI) (AII) (BI) (BII)
labarûr I speak
(*labarâ- + -ôr) sepiûr I follow mediûr I judge,
I consider
labarâtar you
(also -âter) speak sepîtar you follow
(also -îter) medietar you judge
(also -ieter)
labarâtor speaks sepîtor follows medietor judges
labarâmor we sp. sepîmor we follow mediomor we judge
labarâte you sp. sepîte you follow mediete you judge
labarântor they
speak sepîntor they
follow mediontor they
judge

Notes:
1) the deponent-passive form of the 2nd plural has no -r, and it is really the same as the active one; an archaic trait shared with Latin and fully maintained by Old Irish.
2) we comment the curious case of the verb *sekwi:-, which means 'says' when inflected as an active: sepît (AII), but 'follows' when inflected as a deponent: sepîtor (AII depon.). The original meaning was the same, but here in Labarion it is considered that the action of 'to follow' falls upon the subject itself.
This identity between the 'follow' and the 'say' concept (i.e."to say = to follow (the words)") is common to both Celtic and Latin: OIr. -sech (active) 'to say', sechitir (depon.) 'follows', MW. heb, hebyr 'says', Latin sequor (depon.) 'I follow', inquam 'I say' <*in-sequam.
3) For obtaining the passive paradimg of any active verb, we need only to attach to it the above endings. Vg.:
arciû 'I ask', arcîj 'you ask' --- arciûr 'I'm asked', arcîtar 'you're asked'
delgû 'I hold', delges 'you hold' --- delgûr 'I'm held', delgetar 'you're held'
4) When attached the -i(d) post-verbal particle, the 3rd persons use to be shortened this way:
labarâtor 'speaks' > labarâtri 'speaks<it>' (instead of labarâtori, also possible)
labarântor 'they speak' > labarântri 'they speak<it>' (for labarântori, also possible).
5) the PASSIVE-IMPERSONAL form is obtained by just adding the -r to the basic form of the verb. As the real origin is *-•r (a sounding consonant), the strong verbs do take a form in -ar (instead of *-er):
anâr (AI) 'it is breathed, everybody breathes'
arcîr (AII) 'it is asked, everybody asks'
labarâr (AI depon.) 'it is spoken, everybody speaks'
sepîr (AII) 'it is said /it is followed'
delgar (BI) 'it is held'
mediar (BI, depon.) 'it is considered'

6) The particular cases of the verbs "to hear, to know, to want":
a) "to hear" is the only deponent verb of the (BV) class: clinutor (BV), cloustâ (fa) "hears" (<*kl•neu-, OIr. cluinethar, clúas, but W. clust "ear").
But it exists moreover a non-deponent clujet (BII), clowetus (mu) "hears". Clujet is a Labarish re-shaping of an original (AII) cluît, sometimes also used (<*klus-î-, W. clyw, clywed, Gaul. cluiou).
Both verbs are nearly synonimous, and they share a part of their paradigms (for example, a common reduplicated preterite: cuclowa, cuclowas, cuclowe, cuclowames, .... ), but perhaps clinutor has a more passive meaning "hears, it comes to his/her ears" and clujet is rather well active "to hear, to listen to".
b) "to know" also has two parallel verbs:
widra, widras, widre, widramer, widate, widantar, a preterite-present verb (OIr. •fetar, •fetar, •fitir, •fitemmar, •fitid, •fetatar) "I know, ..." (rather well in a passive form),
gnijû, gnijes, gnijet, gnijomes, gnijete, gnijont (BII) "I know, ..." (rather well by active learning, Gaul. gniIou, W. adnabod <âd-gneu-, OW. gnou).
Moreover, it exist a present (BV) paradigm: winnûr, winnetar, winnetor, winnomor, winnete, winnontor "I get to know,..." (OIr. •finnadar <*ui-n-d-neu-).
All three are but modalities of an only verb, and they share the same VN: wissus (mu).
c) one of the verbs for "to want, to wish" is a deponent (BI) class:
welûr, weletar, weletor, welomor, welete, welontor (Gaul-Lat. uelor, cfs. Lat. volo, Goth. wilja).
(not to confound with the (AII) weliû, welîj, welît... "I see, you see, ..." which comes from an homophonous IE root).
The VN of weletor is suanton (no), of course the same of suantet (BI), a synonymous verb.


* * * *

DEPONENT PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

The paradigm of this tense is the same as the active mood but adding the deponent-passive endings:

(AI) (AII) (BII)
labarâr I may
speak sepîar I may
follow messûr I may judge
(*med-se-ô-r)
labarâitar you
may speak sepîetar you may
follow messar you ..
(*med-se-(te)r)
labarâitor (s)he .. sepîetor (s)he .. messetor (s)he..
labarâomor we .. sepîomor we .. messomor we ..
labarâite you .. sepîete you ... messete you ..
labarâontor they.. sepîontor they .. messontor they ..




* * * *

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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 17:11

Est-ce que les membres français de la mouvance néo-druidiste vont apprendre cette langue?
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 17:47

silent 


Dernière édition par lsd le Lun 8 Juil 2013 - 8:55, édité 1 fois
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Olivier Simon

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Labarion (Alounis) Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 18:45

J'ai eu du mal à trouver les règles de cette conlang (cachées de l'extérieur dans la section fichier d'un groupe yahoo...).

En fait, c'est précisément sur un forum parlant du groupe bardique suisse mentionné par Isd que j'ai retrouvé la trace de cette conlang. Ils disent qu'elle est bien sur certains aspects, moins sur d'autres, sans détailler.
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 20:06

Et le lexique?
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Olivier Simon

Olivier Simon

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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMar 21 Mai 2013 - 20:30

Silvano a écrit:
Et le lexique?


Je donne le lien vers la page sur Scribd tout en haut de ce fil.
Ca a l'air d'être bien (finalement, le lexique gaulois est plus facile à trouver ou reconstruire que la grammaire) mais j'ai l'impression qu'ils auraient pu mettre plus de mots.

Par exemple, pour les lieux du Québec, tu peux reconstruire Virodûnon = Verdun.

Par contre, pour Longueuil, je ne trouve que "loncâ" = le bateau; j'aurais aimé avoir *ialos ou *iolos = la clairière.
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMer 22 Mai 2013 - 1:24

HAHA ! Donc Eluveitie chante en labarion ? Ou une langue inspirée ?

Il y a des textes dans cette langue ? Parce que les longues listes de déclinaisons, ça me rend malade... pale

_________________
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Original, bien justifié, et différent du sambahsa et de l'uropi. - Velonzio Noeudefée
Nemszev m'a fait une remarque l'autre jour, et j'y ai beaucoup réfléchi depuis. - Djino
J'ai beaucoup de tendresse pour ta flexion verbale. - Doj-Pater
Oupses ! - Anoev
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyMer 22 Mai 2013 - 8:19

Nemszev a écrit:
HAHA ! Donc Eluveitie chante en labarion ? Ou une langue inspirée ?

Il y a des textes dans cette langue ? Parce que les longues listes de déclinaisons, ça me rend malade... pale

Pas "en labarion", mais dans une langue très proche. Tu te souviens peut-être que j'avais réussi à analyser le texte de la chanson.

Il doit y avoir quelques textes, dans la section fichiers du groupe Yahoo....
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptyLun 27 Mai 2013 - 4:21

Olivier Simon a écrit:
Silvano a écrit:
Et le lexique?


Je donne le lien vers la page sur Scribd tout en haut de ce fil.
On me demande de payer pour devenir un Premium Reader...
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Labarion (Alounis) EmptySam 8 Juin 2013 - 19:42

Ce soir sur ARTE, un documentaire par J.J. Beneix sur les Gaulois : http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr
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